Percussion Instruments of Indian Classical Music: History, Origin and Facts

Mridangam 

The Mridangam is perhaps the most highly developed and the most ancient of all percussion instruments. It is commonly used in the south as an accompaniment to the vocal and the instrumental performances. It literally means body of clay. The southern Mridangam is a cylindrical hollowed out block of wood Skin covers the opening ends and is fastened the leather hoops held taut by interlaced leather braces.

A wide variety of tones are obtained from different parts of the instrument. For instance, the head can be struck with a full hand or with the fingers, which are clamped or released. The types of strokes are distinguished by an elaborate percussion terms. The alternation of sounds between two heads of the Mridangam further enhances the tones.


Ghatam

Ghatam, on the ancient percussion instruments, often head in Carnatic Music concerts, is a mud pot carefully kneaded and uniformly fired. The mouth of the Ghatam is open and is played with two hands, writs, fingers and nails.

The mouth is pressed against the stomach so that when strokes are, the air inside is set in vibration and gives a deep tone. The player can elicit various volumes and tonal colors by giving the fingers strokes at the neck, center and bottom of outer surface.

Tabla

A pair of drums called the tabla accompanies most Indian classical performances. According to ancient Hindu legends, Shiva (the god of music and dance) invented the drums. One story says that in the deep crevasses of the Himalayan glaciers, one often hears the Thud of heavy ice boulders falling down. These noises are believed to be from Shiva's drum.

The right-hand drum is called the Tabla and the left-hand drum, which is lower in pitch, is called the Bayan. The combined name for these drums is Tabla-Bayan. The tabla drum can be tuned by adjusting the tension of the head skin by moving the corks on the side of the drum’s body.

The drums are made by a stretched layer of skin on the top, with a round black circle in the middle, made from a past of iron filings and rice powder -the thicker the powder the lower the pitch of the drum. The tabla can make more than two sounds. The player can produce varied sounds by striking the head in different places with his fingers or with the palm of the hand. These sounds are taught through a drum language called Tabla Bols.


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Which String Instruments are used in Indian Classical Music: History, Origin and Facts about them


Sitar

The invention of the Sitar is commonly credited to Amir Khusrau, a courier of Allauddin Khilji in the 13th Century. The name Sitar was derived from Persian ‘Sehtar’ meaning ‘three strings’ which the instrument originally had. But the modern Sitar has seven strings fastened to the pegs on neck and the sides. Sixteen to twenty-two frets are secured to the finger board by pieces of gut.


There are also 11 to 12 sympathetic strings below the frets, running parallel to the main strings. The instrument is played by means of a wire plectrum worn on the forefinger of the right hand. It was instrumental in introducing western audiences to Indian Classical Music.


Sarod

Although the origin of the Sarod is not known, it is supposed to have descended from the rabab of the Middle East. Some believe that this stringed instrument might have originated from the Greco-Buddhist area of Gandhar (modern Afghanistan).

The modern Sarod is made of wood with one end being rounded and covered with parchment. There are six main metallic strings fastened to pegs at the neck of the instrument. It is played with a plectrum held in the right hand while the fingers of the left hand are used to play the notes. It is fretless instrument with sympathetic strings. Sarod has secured an important place in Hindustani Classical Music for its deep and rich tone and a distinctive sound.

Sarangi

Sarangi is another stringed instrument mainly popular as a folk instrument and probably made it’s first appearance in the late 17th Century.


The ability to play all types of  gamakas gave it prominent place in Hindustani Classical Music.  It is made of hallowing out a single block of wood and covered by parchment and has four strings.  Four tuning pegs are fixed to the hollow head and a bridge is placed on the hide-covered belly in the middle. The place places the instrument on the lap and plays it with a horse hair bow in the right hand and fingers and nails of the left hand. The tone of the Sarangi is very near to the human vocal chord.

Santoor

Santoor, which originated from the Vedic Vana Veena, is characteristic of the Kashmir Valley and is neither seen nor played anywhere else. The Vana Veena also had strings and was played with sticks. The modern Santoor is made of a trapezoid wooden box.

There are thirty bridges and a set of four strings of metal, tuned to the same note, is stretched over each pair of the bridges. It is played with a pair of flat wooden pieces curved at the striking ends. Today, Santoor is played with all Indian ragas and is very popular with film musicians.

Jaatis of Ragas - Difference between Thaats and Jaati of Raga



A Raga is nothing but a selection or a combination of specific Swaras from the Saptak.

Later the musicologist Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande classified Ragas in 10 specific Thaats (For more information see: Thaats)

There are certain Ragas in which all the Seven Sounds (Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni) are used and such Ragas are called “Complete Ragas”.

There are certain other Ragas in which only Six or Five swaras are used.

The sounds (Swaras) which are not used are called Varjit Swara or Prohibited Sound.

Such Ragas with Six Sounds are called Sharav Raga.

There are certain Ragas in which only five Sounds are used. Such a Raga is called Auruv Raga.

All in all, the Ragas can be classified in Jaatis (Castes) based on the Number of Swaras whereas Thaats are a classification technique based on the Type of the Swaras.

There are mainly Nine castes (Jaati) of Ragas as explained below:

Complete Raga 

The Ragas where all the seven Swaras are used in Aroh and Avaroh is “Complete Raga”.
Example:

Aroh 

Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa

Avaroh

Sa Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa.

Complete Sharav Raga

The Raga in which Seven Sounds are used in Aroh and Six Sounds are used in Avaroh, is called “Complete Sharav Raga”.
Example:

Aroh

Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA

Avaroh 

SA Ni Dha Pa Ma. Ga Sa

Complete Aurava Raga 

The Raga in which there are Seven Sounds in Aroh and five Sounds in Avaroh is called a “Complete Aurava Raga”
Example:

Aroh

Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA

Avaroh

SA Ni Pa Ma Re Sa

Sharava Complete Raga

The Raga in which there are Six sounds in Aroh and Seven Sounds in Avaroh is called “Sharava Complete Raga” e.g.

Aroh

Sa Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA

Avaroh

SA Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re. Sa

Sharava-Shrava Raga

The Raga in which there are Six sounds in Aroh and Six sounds in Avaroh is called “Sharava-Shrava Raga”

Aroh

Sa Re Ga Ma Dha Ni SA

Avaroh

SA Ni Dha Ma Ga Sa

Sharava Aurava Raga

The Raga in which there are Six Sounds in Aroh and Five Sounds in Avaroh is called “Sharava Aurava Raga”

Aroh

Sa Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA

Avaroh

SA Dha Pa Ma Re Sa.

Aruva-Complete Raga

The Raga in which there are five sounds in Aroh and seven sounds in Avaroh is called “Aruva-Complete Raga”

Aroh

Sa Re Ma Pa Dha SA

Avaroh

SA Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa

Aruva- Sharav Raga

The Raga in which five sounds are used in Aroh and Six sounds are used in Avaroh is called “Aruva- Sharav Raga”

Aroh

Sa Re Ma Pa Dha SA

Avaroh

SA Ni Dha Pa Ma Re Sa

Aruva-Auruva Raga

The Raga in which five sounds are used in Aroh and Five sounds are used in Avaroh too is called “Aruva-Auruva Raga” e.g.

Aroh

Sa Re Ga Pa Dha SA

Avaroh

Sa Dha Pa Ga Re Sa

Raga Asavari /Asaavari with Notes and Saragam

Learn Raga Asavari with Aroh, Avaroh and Bandhish

Introduction 

Raga Asavari was originated at Asavari Ghaat. For this reason Raga Asavari is also called Ashray raga from Asavari Ghaat. In this raga the swaras Ga Dha and Ni are used as komal swara.
In the Aroh the swaras Ga and Ni both are prohibited and hence only 5 swaras are used.

Aroh and Avaroh

In Avaroh all 7 swaras are used. Because of 5 swaras in Aroh and 7 Swaras in Avaroh, the Jaati of this Raga is Audhav Sampoorna.

Jaati (Audhav Sampoorna)

Taal: Teen Taal

The Vaadi Swara is Dha and Samwadi Swara in of this Raga is Ga.

Prahar: 

The Raga is supposed to be sung during 2nd Prahar. (See Prahara 2)

Aroh

Sa Re Ma Pa Dha Sa,

Avaroh

Sa Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa

Pakad

Re Ma Pa, Ni Dha Pa

Example of Swar Malika

Sthayi

Re Ma Pa Ni Dha Dha Pa Pa,
Ma Pa Dha Pa Ga Re Sa,
Re Ma Pa Ni Dha Dha Pa Pa,
Ma Pa Dha Pa Ga Re Sa,
Re Sa Dha Pa Ma Pa Dha Sa,
Re Ma Pa Dha Ga Re Sa,
Re Sa Dha Pa Ma Pa Dha Sa,
Re Ma Pa Dha Ga Re Sa,
Re Ma Pa Ni Dha Dha Pa Pa,
Ma Pa Dha Pa Ga Re Sa,
Re Ma Pa Ni Dha.

Antara: 

Ma Pa Dha Sa Re Sa
Dha Sa Ga Re Sa Dha Pa
Ma Pa Dha Sa Re Sa
Dha Sa Ga Re Sa Dha Pa
Pa Ga Re Sa Re Sa Dha Pa
Ma Pa Dha Pa Ga Re Sa
Pa Ga Re Sa Re Sa Dha Pa
Ma Pa Dha Pa Ga Re Sa
Re Ma Pa Ni Dha Dha Pa Pa
Ma Pa Dha Pa Ga Re Sa,
Re Ma Pa Ni Dha

Example of Bandish of Raga Asavari:  

Sthayi

Madhur Madhur Sab Vani Bolo – 2
Kano Mein Sab Rasa Ko Gholo -2
Madhur Madhur Sab, Vani Bolo
Madhur Madhur..

Antara: 

Meethi Bani Ki Ganga Mein -2
Sathi Nij Shabadon Ko Gholo,
Madhur Madhur Sab, Vani Bolo
Madhur Madhur..

Another example of Bandish

Aroh

Sa Re Ma Pa Dha(komal) SA

Avaroh

SA Ni(komal) Dha(komal) Pa Ma Pa Dha(komal) Ma Pa Ga(komal) Re Sa

Asaawari Ragini Madhur - 2,
Mrudul sur Ga Dha Ni
Chadhat Ga Ni varaj (Antaraa)
That soha shrungar karun ras
Dha Ga Vadi Samvadi kaha asa
Gunijan Gavat Dwitiya
Praha Din Sughar


Raga Yaman with Saragam, Notes, Bandhish and Lakshan Geet with Pdf Download

Learn Indian Ragas with PDF Downloads

Raga Yaman uses all seven swaras, 
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
In Yaman Raga Ma is tivra so we write it as MA. Rest all other swaras are shudh/natural. 

Important!! (Notation)

Capital Letter: High Notes
Exclamation Mark (!) means longer notes.

Jaati

Sampoorna/Sampoorna

Time of Day

Aaroh 

Ni Re Ga MA Dha Ni Sa

Avaroh

SA Ni Dha Pa, MA Ga Re Sa

Sthai

Ne Dha! Pa MA Pa Ga MA Pa!! Pa MA Ga Re, 
Ni Re Ga Re Ga MA Pa Dha Pa MA Ga Re Ga Re Sa! 
Ni Re Ga MA Dha Ni RE GA RE SA Ni Dha Pa MA Ga MA

Antara: 

Ga Ga Pa Dha Pa SA! SA Ni RE GA RE SA Ni Dha Pa,
GA RE SA Ni Dha Pa Ni Dha Pa MA Ga Re Ga Re Sa!,
Ni Re Ga MA Dha Ni RE GA RE SA Ni Dha Pa MA Ga Ma

Bandish 

Giridhar Madhav Shyam Manohar
Prakatat Gokul Vimal Nanddhar - Antara
Ati Anand Pulak Narnaari
Bhag Sarahat Har Madnaari
Vasat Prem Nita Vilasat Tehi Dhar (1)


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Download PDF

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Raga Durga
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What are Sruti or Shruti in Hindustani Classical Music: History Origin and Facts

sruti notes in indian classical music

What are Shruti/Sruti? 

To understand what Sruti is, first you need to understand how the octaves are defined. When you sing the Saragam (Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA), the first Sa and the second SA always have a relation in their frequencies, that is, the frequency of SA (the last note) is exactly double of that of the frequency of Sa (this first note). So, an Octave is actually the frequency band between Sa and SA.

Now considering the capabilities of human biology, human Ears cannot differentiate clearly between very small changes in the frequencies and hence to make a clear difference in the sounds, there must be a minimum difference between two sounds, and this is how Srutis are defined. Srutis divide the frequencies in an Octave into 22 distinct parts and each Sruti represents a relation between its previous Sruti and the next Sruti.

It is important to understand that Srutis represent a relation between the previous and next Sruti and hence no matter which frequency an Octave starts the Srutis are going to divide it into 22 relative parts.

Also, Srutis are not equidistant, which means two Srutis can have a variable frequency difference but the proportion in each octave is supposed to be same.
Here is the list of divisions of Srutis in Hindustani Classical Music.

Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha    Ni
4  4  3  2  4   3     2


Here is a full list of all the Srutis and their Carnatic Music names.
(May be just bookmark it for reference)

​Sruti Name
​Sign​Carnatic Name
​22​SHADJA TARA​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​S​Shadja Tara
​21​Tivra Ni​N+
​20​SHUDDHA NI​N​Kakali Ni
​19​Komal Ni​n​Kaisiki Ni
​18​Ati Komal Ni​n- 
​17​SHUDDHA DHA​D​Chatuhasruti Dha 
​16​Trisruti Dha​D-
​15Komal Dha​d​SHUDDHA DHA
​14Atikomal Dha​d
​13​PANCHAMA​P​Pa
​12​Tivratara Ma​m+
​11​Tivra Ma​m​Prati Ma
​10​Ekasruti Ma​M+
​09​SHUDDHA MA​M​Shuddha Ma
​08​Tivra Ga​G+
​07​SHUDDHA GA​G​Antara Ga
​06​Komal Ga​g​Sadharana Ga
​05​Atikomal Ga​g-
​04​SHUDDHA RI​R​Chatuhsri Ri
​03​Madhya Ri​R-
​02​Komal Ri​r​Suddha Ri
​01​Atikomal Ri​r-
​0​SHADJA​S​Shadja Madhya 

There is a significant similarity between Hindustani Classical Music and the ancient Greek Music culture. But a major difference between Indian and Greek musicology is that in Greece the Octave was divided into 24 Srutis so the proportion were also different.

I hope it is now clear what Sruti means, let me know if I missed something as I would love to listen your feedback.
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10 Thaats in Hindustani Classical Music: Most Important

10 Thaats in Hindustani Classical Music

What are Thaats? 

In simple words, Thaats are a way to classify various ragas into groups based on which Swaras are used in a specific Raga. When thinking about it you might think that Thaats and Ragas were created at the same time but contrary to the intuition, the Ragas existed long before the Thaats and later Thaats were created to classify the Ragas.

The question now you can ask, then who created Thaats? Well, Thaats were created by a musicologist name Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860-1936) and his first ideas were inspired by the Mela System of Carnatic Music from South India. The Mela System or more fully, a Swaramela System represents a group or collection of Swaras which are compatible with each other in the pitches so that when sung together they sound wonderful.

Properties of Thaats


A Classification System for Ragas: 

Since Thaats are not actually Ragas but rather they are a classification system, obviously, they are not supposed to be sung by a singer. It is like in a school, if the students are represented by class VI and class VII, then these classes are not supposed to be taught by a teacher, instead, it is the students who are taught by the teacher. Or another example can be, if we make a house based on the blueprint then we don’t live in a blueprint but we live in a house. (Hope it is clear). Thaats are also represented by “Mode” which is nothing but a specific scale in Hindustani Classical Music.

Thaats always have 7 Notes (Pitches): 

Let us not forget that in Indian Classical Music notes of an octave have names like this:

Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA 

I will use the notation for notes like this:

Komal Swara (flat notes): All small caps

Tivra Swara (sharp): Swara+

Now of course there are some Komal and Tivra version of these Swaras which are represented as follows:


  • Flat Re: re
  • Flat Ga: ga
  • Flat: Dha: dha
  • Flat Ni: ni
  • Tivra Ma, Ma+


So now including these variations of Swaras we have in total 12 Swaras like this:

Sa,  (re Re), (ga Ga), (Ma Ma+) Pa (dha Dha) (ni Ni) 

Having these 12 notes, any combination of 7 notes out of 12 notes will represent a Thaat if it follows the following rule:

RULE: Any parent scale can have just one note from the following pairs (re, Re), (ga, Ga), (dha, Dha), and (ni, Ni). 

So now if we do some Maths then we have the following possibilities:

1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 2 x 2 = 32

This number 32 represents a total number of Thaats which were initially proposed by Bhatkhande.
But later, he decided to only have 10 main Thaats which cover almost all the Ragas and hence today we only learn about 10 Thaats by their names.

Thaats have only Aroh Sequence: 

I think this is very clearly understood that since Thaats are not supposed to be sung, they only have Aroh sequence.

Both Version (Note and Semintone) of a Swara is Not Allowed

Although we have ga and Ga or Ma and Ma+, but in any Thaat, both versions of the Swara are not allowed. Now if you pay attention, you will notice a pattern that this rule actually removes the possibility of having Swaras which are half tone (semitone) apart. Which is a stricter rule than generally found in Mela System.

For example, an acceptable classification for Mela System like this

Sa re Re Ma+ Pa dha Dha SA

is completely not accepted in Hindustani Classical Music as it contains notes which are half note apart (Violation is marked in Red). Also, it violates the rule define before.

Which Ragas belong to which thaats (Examples). 

The main 10 (and not 32) Thaats which were proposed by Bhatkhande are named after the most popular Raga which belongs to it. Here are the 10 Thaats and some Ragas which belong to it.

Bilawal (Ionian mode): Sa Re Ga ma Pa Dha Ni SA

Morning: Raga Alhaiya Bilawal, Raga Bilawal
Evening: Raga Durga
Night: Raga Bihag, Raga Hamsadhwani

Khamaj (Mixolydian mode): Sa Re Ga ma Pa Dha ni SA

Evening: Raga Desh, Raga Khamaj
Night: Raga Gorakh Kalyan, Raga Champakali, Raga Jog, Raga Rageshree, Raga Saraswati, Raga Tilak Kamod

Kafi (Dorian mode): Sa Re ga ma Pa Dha ni SA

Morning: Raga Asavari, Raga Jaunpuri
Afternoon: Bhimpalasi
Evening: Raga Kafi, Raga Patdeep
Night: Raga Bageshree, Raga Chandrakauns, Raga Pilu, Raga Shivranjini

Asavari (Aeolian mode): Sa Re ga ma Pa dha ni SA

Morning Raga Asavari, Raga Jaunpuri
Night: Raga Adana, Raga Darbari

Bhairavi (Phrygian mode): Sa re ga ma Pa dha ni SA

Morning: Raga Bhairavi, Raga Komal Rishabh Asavari
Night: Raga Malkauns

Bhairav (double harmonic): Sa re Ga ma Pa dha Ni SA

Morning: Raga Ahir Bhairav, Raga Bairag, Raga Bhairav, Raga Jogiya, Raga Nat Bhairav, Raga Ramkali

Kalyan (Lydian mode): Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA

Afternoon: Raga Shudh Sarang
Evening: Raga Bhopali, Raga Meru Bihag, Raga Yaman
Night: Raga Kedar

Marwa Sa re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA

Dawn: Raga Bhatiyar, Raga Sohini
Evening: Raga Puriya Kalyan

Poorvi Sa re Ga Ma Pa dha Ni SA

Dawn: Raga Lalit
Afternoon: Raga Poorvi
Evening: Raga Puriya Dhanashree

Todi Sa re ga Ma Pa dha Ni SA

Morning: Gujari Todi
Afternoon: Raga Madhuvanti, Raga Multan


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Guide to Hindustani Classical Music: You would never need anything else

Karnatic Music Origin

Origins of Hindustani Classical Music

Hindustani Classical Music, also known as "Shastriya Sangeet" or "Klasiki Mausiqi" was originated in the form of Vedic Chants in 12th Century CE. The place of origin for Hindustani Classical music is know to be Northern India, Pakistan, Banglashdesh, Nepal and few parts of Afghanistan. In today's world, it is one of the two major classical music forms namely:

  • Carnatic (Karnatak) Music originated mainly in Southern India and 
  • Hindustani Classical Music. 


Characteristics 

Because of it's roots in Samaveda (Sama meaning Song), Hindustani Classical Music has a central notion of melodic mode (which is similar to the chanting of Srutis of RigVeda), often referred to as Ragas which are sung in a rhythmic cycle which is known as Tala. Hindustani Classical Music was mainly a form of Art in 12 century with a classification of masters of the arts as Pandits for hindus and Ustads for Muslims. It was also a religiously neutral art form as witnessed by the Sufi music where ustads often sang songs about Hindu Deities and vice versa. 
Credit and Reference Project Gutenberg

Music In Vedas and Vedic Era


The concept of tones or notes of 7 originally came from Samveda where it gave structure to the singing of the verses of Rigveda. These seven notes were:

  1. Krusht
  2. Pratham
  3. Dwitiya
  4. Tritiya
  5. Chaturth
  6. Mandra
  7. Atiswar

At that time the only fixed frequency instrument was flute so these notes are with respect to notes of the flute. Music was also intensively depicted in the religious scriptures like Ramayana, where Narada was an accomplished musician and so does Ravana. Saraswati is the goddess of knowledge and music with her Veena. The most important text on music is Bharata's Natya Shastra which deals with different styles of music, dance and drama including the emotional responses of the listener or viewer. The term Raga gets its meaning also from Bharata's Natya Shastra.


Main Concepts

Swara, Thaat, Shruti, Raga, Sargam, Tala, Laya, Bandish, Gharan

Musical Instruments

Sitar, Sarod, Veena, Bansuri, Santoor, Shehnai, Sarangi, Tambura, Tabla, Pakhavaj

Genres

Dhrupad, Dhamar, Khyal, Tarana, Sadra

Semi-Classical Genres

Thumri, Dadra, Tappa, Kajari, Chaiti, Sawani, Hori, Bhajan, Abhang, Natyageet, Qawwali, Ghazal

Thaats

Bilaval, Khamaj, Kafi, Asavari, Bhairav, Bhairavi, Todi, Purvi, Marwa, Kalyan



Let me know in the comment section if you would like more details.

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Why You Should Learn an Instrument as a Vocalist?

Learning to play a music instrument has multiple advantages for singers of Hindustani classical music. But at the same time one doesn’t necessarily has to learn an instrument in order to learn vocal skills.


Here are four main reasons why it is a good idea to learn an instrument as a vocalist.

Music Theory

Music TheoryGenerally speaking, students who learn vocal/singing skills, do not really need a deep understanding of music theory and usually as vocalist (except in some genres of music) students can work their way up without learning it. On the contrary, as  a musician, one needs to have a strong understanding of music theory including reading and writing skills of musical notations. Learning music theory has the advantage that it improves listening skills and tunes up the ears too.

Visual Memory

Learning to play an instrument helps to learn a melody and musical notes visually. One can play and sing along, say a difficult part of melody, on a piano and remember the notes or “Suras” as visual representation. This helps specifically students who have a strong visual memory.

Versatility with Confidence

As a vocalists, at times, to gain confidence and to get rid of stage fear, performing in front of a small
group, for example a house party or at a small house concert can radically boost one’s self -confidence. But often times as a vocalist, it is difficult to keep the audience interested during a performance. Learning an instrument will enable multiple opportunities to perform in front of small groups which ultimately brings more confidence and clear understanding of one’s own capabilities.




Collaboration with Musicians

One strong advantage of learning to play an instrument is that sooner or later as vocalist, one wants or happens to sing as part of a band where s/he needs to collaborate with multiple different musicians.

From my personal experience, it bring a huge advantage when as a vocalist one understands the language of music and can talk and discuss about the notes and beats while practicing a song with other musicians. Often times groups tend to have multiple vocalists where each member has to support other vocalist in their performance and in this case, it becomes very helpful if a vocalist can take up more roles in a band.

Finally, in my opinion, it is always good to explore multiple dimensions of one’s skills even though the main interest remains in vocal skills.

Also, when life gives you only one chance, learning an instrument is worth it.

All the best.

PS: Please let me know if I missed something!! :)Please like the facebook page:

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Raga Kedar
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Raga Durga
Raga Saranga
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Which Raga should I sing during days and nights?

Raga Kalavati and how to sing it with Aroh, Avaroh, Pakad, Lakshan Geet and Bandhish

Learn about Indian Ragas


Important!! (Notation)

Capital Letter: High Notes
Exclamation Mark (!) mean longer notes.

Time of Day

Aaroh 

Sa Ga Pa Dha Ni SA

Avaroh

SA Ni Dha Pa, Ga Pa Dha Pa Ga Sa

Pakad

Sa Ga Ga Sa, Sa Ga Pa Ga Sa, -2
Sa Ga Pa Dha Pa Ga Sa, Sa Ga Pa Dha Ni Dha Pa Ga Sa,
Sa Ga Ga Sa, Sa Ga Pa Ga Sa,
Sa Ga Pa Dha Pa Ga Sa, Sa Ga Pa Dha Ni Dha Pa Ga Sa,
Sa Ga Pa Dha Ni SA
SA Ni Dha Pa Ga Sa
SA Ni Dha Pa Ga Sa, Ni Dha Sa, Ni Dha Sa, Ni Dha Sa,
Sa Ga Ga Sa, Sa Ga Pa Ga Sa,
Sa Ga Pa, Sa Ga Ga Sa,
Sa Ga Pa Ga Sa, Sa Ga Pa Dha Pa Ga Sa,
Sa Sa Ga Ga Pa Pa Dha Dha Pa Pa Ga Ga Sa,
Sa Sa Ga Ga Pa Pa Dha Dha, Ni Ni Dha Dha Pa Pa Ga Ga Sa
Sa Ga Pa Dha Ni Dha SA, SA Ni Dha Pa, Ni Dha Pa Ga,
Dha Pa Ga Sa, Pa Ga Sa Ni, Ga Sa Ni, Dha Sa

Bandhishi (Tritaal)

Bolan Laagi Koyaliya -3
Bhramat Bhramar Madhu Maas Aaya - 2 (Back to first line)
Kal Kookaki Kunja, Gunjaar
Atahi Suhavan Nirakhat Chhaiya (


PS: Please let me know if I missed something!! :)Please like the facebook page:

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Hindustani Classical Music - Everything You Need to Know
4 Reasons Why You Should Learn an Instrument as a Vocalist
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Raga Kedar
Raga Bhoopali
Raga Durga
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Nav Ras
Where does Saregama come from?
Which Raga should I sing during days and nights?

Raga Hamir or Raaga Hameer and how to sing it with Pakad, Lakshan Geet and Bandhish with Pdf Download

Notes for Raga Hamir

Important!!

Capital Letter: High Notes
Exclamation Mark (!) mean longer notes.

Aaroh 

Sa Ga Ma Dha Ni SA

Avaroh:

SA Ni Dha Pa Ma, Pa Ga Ma Re, Sa

Sthai

SA Ni Dha Pa Ma, Pa Ga Ma Dha!! Dha Ni SA!
SA RE SA SA Na Dha Pa Ma, Pa Ga Ma Dha!
Ga Ma Re Sa , Sa Re Ga Ma Dha Dha Ma, Pa Dha Ni SA RE
SA Ni Dha Pa Ma, Pa Ga Ma Dha!!! Dha Ni SA,


Antara

Pa! Pa SA! SA SA! RE SA, GA MA RE SA! RE SA!
SA Ni Dha Pa! Dha Ma, Pa Ga Ma Re Sa! Re Sa!
Sa Re Sa! Dha Dha Pa! SA RE SA Ni Dha Pa! Dha Ma Pa Ga Ma Dha!! Dha Ni SA!

Bandhishi

Gavat Jan Madhur Naam,
Seetaa pati Sukhaviraam,
Harat Kaam Ika Darasan (Antara)

Vadan Koti Chandra Saris
Tilak Charu Ruchir Paras,
Naam Vibudh Muni Saravas,
Avadha Sujan Paaee Sahaj (1)

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PS: Please let me know if I missed something!! :)
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Hindustani Classical Music - Everything You Need to Know
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Raga Kedar
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Raga Durga
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Raga Des
Nav Ras
Where does Saregama come from?
Which Raga should I sing during days and nights?

























11 Best Ragas Used In Bollywood Music

Learn singing bollywood songs with classical Ragas

Raag Bhairav

Raag Hameer

  • Madhuban Mein Radhika Nache Re (Movie: Kohinoor)

Raag Kalavati


Raag Bhairavi

Raag Yaman / Yaman - Kalyan

Raag Darbaari

  • O Duniya Ke Rakhwaale (Movie: Baiju Bawra)
  • Tu Pyaar Ka Sagar Hai (Movie: Seema)
  • Ae Dil Mujhe Aisi Jagah (Movie: Aarzoo)
  • Tora Man Darpan Kahlaaye (Movie: Kaajal)
  • Jhanak Jhanak Tori Baaje (Movie: Mere Huzoor)
  • Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna (Movie: Shaheed)

Raag Pahadi

Raag Shivaranjini

Raag Bhopali

Raag Malhar

Raag Khamaj


Raaga Kedar or Raga Kedara: Learn its History, Origin and Facts with Download Pdf

Raaga Kedar / Raga Kedara

Time of Singing: First Prahar of The Night (See refrerence here)

Aaroh: 

sa ma pa, ma pa dha ni dha pa ma pa sa

Avaroh: 

sa ni dha pa, ma pa ma sa re sa


Lakshan Geet 1: 

Kedar Ras Shant Gaat Guni, - 2
Dou Nishad Sur Tivar Madhyam - 2
Karat Varaj Gandhar Chadhat Ri - 2 (Back to first line)

Vaadi Rahat Nit Mahdyam Suswar - 2
Samvadi Puni Shadaj Manyavar - 2
Pratham Prahar Nis Gaat Chatur Jana - 2 (Back to first line)

Lakshan Geet 2: 

Bol Bol Mose Nand Kunvarava, - 2 
Rasbhari Batiyan Laag Madhur Tori - 2 (Back to first line)

Subhag Hath Tore Bansi Shaamasi - 2
Brijavasi Nirakhat Nayan Bahri - 2
Ati Aghat Jas Bhookh Bhikhari - 2 (Back to first line) 

How to sing Ragas and how to improve Singing. The best 5 ways to improve your singing

Indian Classical Music 

Indian classical music takes a lot of efforts to sing and specially sing very well. Here are 5 most helpful techniques you can use to sing better.


1. Do not try very hard. 

One of the things most people forget while learning to sing is that learning to sing is more like going to gym and slowly building your muscles.  In singing, you need the same strategy.  You start first with easy singing and practicing the Alankaras and then slowly you grow your abilities to sing higher ranges. Trying extremely hard would put unnecessary pressure on your vocal chords and might result in physical damage to your throat. So give yourself time and practice in increasing levels of difficulties.

2. Drink a little warm water before practicing

Before you start practicing everyday, do not forget that keeping your throat wet and soft gives good results.  Drinking warm water helps activating and soften the throat muscles making it easier to uplift your singing ranges.

3. Practice different ranges 

When you started learning singing, very quickly try to figure out your higher range and lower range. After you have figured out your high and low range, always warm up in this range before you try to hit the ranges outside your own range. Often times, trying to sing the songs of singers whose voice matches your voice helps also.

4. Master lower range of your voice before the higher

After you know your singing ranges, it is relatively easier to increase the lower range of your singing as you don't have the risk of hurting your throat while attempting the lower ranges. Pick some Alankaras where you have lower notes and practice them.


5. Warm up (The most important)

Always always always warm up before you start singing. Nothing can give better results then a well warmed up throat. There are warm up exercises in the other post which you can also use. But never forget to warm up before your singing.


Bonus Point: 

Once I had my own performance for singing but before that there were other cultural events where I kept on cheering loudly. Which was very bad idea because by the time I was on the stage performing for my singing, my throat was already tired.  This was a very bad situation where I somehow made it. But I felt very stupid afterwards.



PS: Please let me know if I missed something!! :)
Please like the facebook page:


You might also like

Hindustani Classical Music - Everything You Need to Know
4 Reasons Why You Should Learn an Instrument as a Vocalist
Raaga Kalvati
Raaga Hameer

11 Best Ragas Used in Bollywood Movies
5 ways you sing better
Raga Kedar
Raga Bhoopali
Raga Durga
Raga Saranga
Raga Bhairava
Raga Des
Nav Ras
Where does Saregama come from?

Which Raga should I sing during days and nights?

Raga Desh, Desh: With Lakshan Geet, Notes and Bandhish with Download Pdf



Aroh: 
ni sa re ma pa ni sa

Avaroh: 
sa ni dha pa dha ma ga re pa ma ga re ga ni sa

Pakad: 
ma pa ni sa ra ni dha pa ma ga re,


Lakshan Geet #1
Guni Gaavat Raagini Desako,
Athi Madhura Madhur Dou Nishad Lai (antara)

Pa Ri Vaadi Samvaadi Sohat,
Chadhat Alpa Ga Dha Sab Kou Sammat,
Rain Din Jehi Gaavat jana (back to start)

Download Pdf


PS: Please let me know if I missed something!! :)
Please like the facebook page:



Hindustani Classical Music - Everything You Need to Know
4 Reasons Why You Should Learn an Instrument as a Vocalist
Raaga Kalvati
Raaga Hameer

11 Best Ragas Used in Bollywood Movies
5 ways you sing better
Raga Kedar
Raga Bhoopali
Raga Durga
Raga Saranga
Raga Bhairava
Raga Des
Nav Ras
Where does Saregama come from?
Which Raga should I sing during days and nights?

Raga Bhairav or Bhairava with Lakshan Geet and Bandhish with Pdf Download



Aaroh: 
sa re ga ma pa dha ni sa

Avaroh:
sa ni dha pa ma ga re sa

Pakad: 
ga sa re sa, ni sa ga ma pa dha pa, ga ma re sa


Lakshan Geet #1:
Jago Brijraaj Kunvar
Nandake Dulaare (Antara)

Jamunamein Genda Daar
Gvaal Baal Haare
Kali Bubhutkar Det

ShyamHi Eek Taare


Lakshan Geet #2:
Madhur Bhairavi Raagini,
Sur Laagat Mrudu Ri Ga Dha Ni
Praata Samaya Gaavat Guni (Antara)
Dha-Ga Vaadi Samvaadini,
Bhaktirasa Shrungaarini
Shiva Bhaamini Poojat Nit,
Shankar Him Dhaval Shikhar (Back to first)

Lakshan Geet #3
Chalo Hatho Girdhari,
Kahe Maari Pichakari (2)

Rang Mein Bhijo Dayi,
Chunaree Mori Saari,

Kunwar Shyam Mori Manate Nahi,
Baar Baar Samjhaye Mai Haari,
Kaa Ri Karoon Kachoo Ban Nahi Aaway,
Chala Baliyan Karata/ Aiso nipataye naari
Chalo Hato Girdhaari Kahe

ni sa ga ma pa dha pa ma ga re sa, (chalo hatho..)
ga ma dha ni sa ga re sa ni dha pa ma ga re sa ni sa,
ni sa ga ma pa dha pa ma ga ma pa ni dha pa ma dha pa ma ga re sa,
sa dha pa dha ma pa ga ma pa dha pa ma ga re sa ni sa ga ma pa dha pa ma pa ga ma pa ni dha pa,
pa ga re ga sa re ni sa, re sa ni dha pa, ni dha pa ma pa
ga ma dha ni sa
ga ma dha ni sa
ga ma dha ni sa

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Ashta Prahar in Indian Classical Music (Times of days) and Ragas for them

Time of Days in Indian Classical Music

Ashta Prahar: 
Ashta means Eight and Prahar means a period of 3 hours. As the day is divided in 24 hours it so do the prahar of each 3 hours and hence there are 8 prahars. And the duration from morning 6pm to the next day morning 6am is called Ashta prahar.

Praharas by time and ragas for each of them: 

Prahar 1 - 6am to 9am: 
Vairav, Bengal Vairav, Ramkali, Bibhas, Jogai, Tori, Jaidev, Morning Keertan, Prabhat Bhairav, Gunkali and Kalingara,

Prahar 2 - 9am to 12pm: 
Deva Gandhar, Bhairavi, Mishra Bhairavi, Asavari, JonPuri, Durga, Gandhari, Misra Bilawal, Bilawal, Brindawani Sarang, Samant Sarang, Kurubh, Devanagiri

Prahar 3 - 12pm to 3pm: 
Gor Sarang, Bhimpalasi, Piloo, Multani, Dhani, Triveni, Palasi, Hansknkini

Prahar 4 - 3pm to 6pm: 
Traditional Keertan of Bengal, Dhanasari, Manohar, Ragasri, Puravi, Malsri, Malvi, Sritank and Hans Narayani

Prahar 5 - 6pm to 9pm: 
Yaman, Yaman Kalyan, Hem Kalyan, Purvi Kalyan, Bhupali, Puria, Kedar, Jaldhar Kedar, Marwa, Chhaya, Khamaj, Narayani, Durga, Tilak Kamod, Hindol, Misra Khamaj Nata, Hamir

Prahar 6 - 9pm to 12am: 
Deshkar (Night), Desh, Desh Misra, Sorat, Bihag, Darsh, Champak, Misra Gara, Tilang, Jai Jawanti, Bahar, Kafi, Arana, Megah, Bagishari, Rageshwari, Malhal, Miya, Malhar

Prahar 7 - 12am to 3am: 
Malgunji, Darbari Kanra, Basant Bahar, Deepak, Basant, Gauri, Chitara Gauri, Shivaranjini, Jaitsri, Dhawalsri, Paraj, Mali Gaura, Maad, Sohani, Hans Rath, Hans Dhwani

Prahar 8 - 3am to 6am: 
Chandrakos, Malkos, Gopika Basant, Pancham, Megh Ranjini, Bhankar, Lalita Gauri, Lalita, Khat, Gurjari Tori, Barati Tori, Bhaopal Tori, Prabhati Kirtan



PS: Please let me know if I missed something!! :)
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You might also like

Hindustani Classical Music - Everything You Need to Know
4 Reasons Why You Should Learn an Instrument as a Vocalist
Raaga Kalvati
Raaga Hameer

11 Best Ragas Used in Bollywood Movies
5 ways you sing better
Raga Kedar
Raga Bhoopali
Raga Durga
Raga Saranga
Raga Bhairava
Raga Des
Nav Ras
Where does Saregama come from?
Which Raga should I sing during days and nights?

What is Saragam or Sa Re Ga Ma? Where does Saragam or sa re ga ma come from?

What is Sa Re Ga Ma

In india, music Ragas may consist of up to seven pitches or simply sounds. These are in hindi (an Indian language) is called "Swara".

There are 7 Swara in Sargam and each of these swara has a name:
1. Sadj (Sa)
2. Risabha(Ri)
3. Gandhar (Ga)
4. Madhyam (Ma)
5. Pancham (Pa)
6. Dhaivat  (Dha)
7. Nishad (Ni)



The European or western equivalent version of these swaras is as follows:
1. Sa - do
2. Ri - re
3. Ga - mi
4. Ma - fa
5. Pa - so
6. Dha - la
7. Ni  - ti

Each Swara is also associated with sound and pictorial images:

Sa - Peacock's cry


Ri - Cow calling her calf

Ga - Goat's bleat

Ma - Heron's cry

Pa - Cuckoo's song


Dha - Horse's neigh


Ni - Elephant's trumpeting.







PS: Please let me know if I missed something!! :)
Please like the facebook page:

You might also like

Hindustani Classical Music - Everything You Need to Know
4 Reasons Why You Should Learn an Instrument as a Vocalist
Raaga Kalvati
Raaga Hameer

11 Best Ragas Used in Bollywood Movies
5 ways you sing better
Raga Kedar
Raga Bhoopali
Raga Durga
Raga Saranga
Raga Bhairava
Raga Des
Nav Ras
Where does Saregama come from?
Which Raga should I sing during days and nights?